The character of revolutions, like the character of every political and social organization, changes through the ages. Thus it is desirable to restrict discussion to modern revolutions, those that have occurred since 1789. For this discussion I suggest the following definition: revolution is a sudden overthrow of a political system through mass action, using means of force; on the basis of ideas which have long been in preparation, it brings about a transformation in the legal and social order which, although new in its orientation, nevertheless arises out of implications of the old regime. Several aspects of this definition deserve elaboration.
There are two reasons why the development of social work in Germany in the period 1918-33 may be of special interest for other countries which are obliged to build up a new machinery of social work. First, during this time the Reich had to care for a mass distribution of enormous size, a problem which appeared more or less in all European states but became so incomparably difficult in Germany because war, inflation and reparation had caused a complete destruction of wealth among the well-to-do and a severe pauperization of the masses.
The idea of 100% money has made rapid headway among American monetary theorists. It was first thrown into discussion by a group of economists of Chicago University, and has since been endorsed by other writers of importance…
Result of Seminar by Gerhard Colm.
The Italian intellectual who arrives in the United States in these thirties is faced with a most pleasant surprise: the philosophy of Italian fascism has been discovered, its author is Vilifredo Pareto, and its content is packed in the Trattato di Sociologia Generale. This means that fascism is no longer a baffling fact, an unpredictable and almost inconceivable conglomeration of accidents. It is a philosophy, one can now approach it and deal with it intellectually at least as easily as he can deal with communism intellectually through the writings of Marx and Lenin.
There is basic difficulty involved in the subject of this article. A general comparison of the American and European churches must fail because the two groups of churches differ with respect to space, time and individual character, and because of the dependence of the American churches on the European in origin and development. These differences, on the one hand, and this dependence, on the other, make it hard to find a definite boundary line between the two groups of churches.
Review of book by Arnold J. Toynbee. The new work of Arnold J. Toynbee is one of the boldest projects that have been planned by a single scholar in recent times, and now after the publication of the first three volumes it can be said that it is one of the most stimulating works in the field of historical and sociological writing.
Review of books by Otto Donner, L. Liepmann, Georg Kepper, Georg Halm, and Miodrag Milijewitsch. German monetary publications still show unmistakable traces of their long seclusion from foreign theoretical thinking. The overwhelming victory of the banking school throughout the world, with the one exception of the British Treasury (but not of the colonial office!) had in German opinion definitely settled all problems of banking and credit and had installed in German students an invincible antipathy to any kind of quantity theory, however modernized.
Review of book by Karl Mannheim. Leyden: Sythoff. 1935. 208 pp.
Review of book by Edward S. Corwin. New Haven: Yale University Press. 1934. 237 pp.
Review of book by Ludwig Oppenheimer. Jena: Gustav Fischer. 1934. 378 pp.
Review of book by Fritz Redlich. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. 1935. 272 pp.
Review of book by Lynn Thorndike. Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, vols. 3 and 4. New York: Columbia University Press. 1934. 827, 767 pp.