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NONTHEMATIC / Vol. 28, No. 1 (Spring 1961)

In 1954 an existing Soviet foundry in Baku was reorganized as a social laboratory in which to test the Soviet Union's readiness for communism, as contrasted with socialism. My purpose here is to describe the operations of this foundry and to consider their implications for professed broader efforts in the same direction. But the meaning and current significance of the Baku experiment may best be appreciated against a brief background of Marxist theory relating to the issue of transition from socialism to communism.

One of the postulates of orthodox international-trade theory is the free flow of long-term capital across national boundaries. With such a flow, interest rates between the capital-abundant and capital-scarce areas are assumed to be brought closer together as lenders and entrepreneurs seek the most profitable opportunities (adjusted for risk differences, of course). In general, discussion regarding the effects of foreign investment has centered on the balance of payments and the income or purchasing-power transfers of lender and borrower.

Far more fundamental, however, than Marx's and Engel's particular usage of the term 'middle class' was their classification of both peasants and urban small-propertied producers and traders as intermediate to the bourgeoisie and the proletariat...I am here concerned less with the number of intermediate classes or middle strata in society than with the concept of 'intermediate class' itself as a fundamental tool of class analysis.

Among the many complex factors that accompany the cultural and social change of long isolated peoples in our time, perhaps none is so important as that thoroughgoing alteration of tastes and values which prompts a material transformation of the society. How to reach a psychological and cultural plateau of sustained motivation, from which the economic development of the society can 'take off' and proceed in accelerating fashion by means of its own new dynamics, is no less a question in the desired modernization of production than the availability of technological facilities and natural resources.

The principle of opportunity cost is generally held to be a valid guide for explaining factor pricing, and it has often been invoked for the purpose of valuing labor in overpopulated countries with a considerable volume of disguised unemployment. There is considerable ambiguity, however, in the interpretation of the principle, and since its interpretation affects such decisions as allocation of investible resources, choice of techniques, and the general time pattern of growth in countries undergoing economic development, this article will examine the principle itself and on this basis consider its implications for certain problems in development programming.

In order to grasp the significance of intersubjectivity as an 'intramundane' problem, it is necessary first to characterize, if only briefly, Schutz's investigations of 'what makes the social world 'tick,'' as he often put it. To make the exposition manageable, it must be restricted to only one stratum of the social world: 'paramount reality,' as distinguished from the world of dreams, of scientific theory, of games, and the like. The world in which I find myself at any moment in my 'wide-awake' living is at the outset peopled with others, not only individuals with whom I am acquainted and others whom I know less well or not at all, or groups of other equally well or less well known to me, but also a multiplicity of 'products' of the activities of others ('cultural' objects, institutions, values, and the like), all of which intrinsically refer to others.

The question of who is entitled to represent China in the United Nations has been for many years, and is still, one of the most disturbing factors in the functioning of that organization. In this highly complicated matter five questions must be distinguished. First, should the present Peiping government be recognized as the government of the whole of China, including Taiwan? Second, should it be recognized at least as the government of the Chinese mainland.

Review of book by Richard Eells. New York: Columbia University Press. 1960. 427 pp.

Europe's Coal and Steel Community: An Experiment in Economic UN. New York: Frederick A. Praeger. 1959. 750 pp.

Review of book by Herbert E. Weiner with an introduction by Michael Ross. Washington, DC: Public Affairs Press. 1960. 111 pp.

Review of book by Robert Loring Allen. Introduction by Erwin D. Canham. Washington, DC: Public Affairs Press. 1960. 293 pp.

Review of book by Andrew Shonfield. New York: Random House. 1960. 269 pp.

Review of book by Peter Ritner. New York: Macmillan. 1960. xii & 312 pp.

Review of book by Emil Lengyel. New York: John Day. 1960. 376 pp.

Review of book by Roy C. Macridis and Bernard E. Brown. Homewood, Ill.: Dorsey Press. 1960. 4000 pp.

Review of book by Elliot R. Goodman with foreword by Philip Ee. Mosely. New York: Columbia University Press. 1960. 512 pp.

Review of book by H. B. Mayo. New York: Oxford University Press. 1960. 316 pp.

Review of book by Austin Robinson. New York: St. Martin's Press. 1960. 446 pp.

Review of book by Wallace S. Sayre and Herbert Kaufman. New York: Russel Sage Foundation. 1960. 815 pp.

Review of book edited by John Rohrer and Edmonson Munro with Harold Lief, Daniel Thompson, William Thompson, co-authors. New York: Harper. 1960. 346 pp.

Review of book edited by Kurt H. Wolff. Columbus: Ohio State University Press. 1960. xiv & 463 pp.

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