In the case of underdeveloped countries, long-run efficiency alone cannot be the sole consideration when accelerating population growth is steadily depressing the standard of living. It is necessary to increase output rapidly enough to raise real per capita income, even if in the beginning only slightly. The following pages are concerned primarily with the problem of industrial productivity. At least equally essential in underdeveloped countries is increased efficiency in agriculture. But this problem, as such, is too complex, and raises too many specifically technical issues of its own to be incorporated in a relatively brief examination of industrial development. Thus it will be touched on here only to the extent that it merges with the main subject under review.
As new trends of legal thought crop up around Pure Theory of Law, the outstanding achievement of Kelsen is seen in better perspective, as are also both valid criticism of his thinking and independent new lines of legal thinking. I can treat here only a few lines of thought which seem to me particularly indicative of present theory as a "dialogue with Kelsen." This "dialogue" is serving to integrate Kelsen’s doctrine into a larger framework of reference.
The Commonwealth of Australia has probably accumulated more experience with the control of labor-management relations through compulsory arbitration than any other country. In terms of the proportion of the labor force and the aspects of labor contracts covered by court awards, the scope of compulsory arbitration in Australia is remarkably wide. Awards usually include provision for a huge variety of factors including basic wages for unskilled adult workers, minimum margins for semiskilled and skilled workers, minimum rates for piece workers, adjustment of wage rates to cost of living, for standard hours to be worked, holidays, annual leave and all manners of other considerations. Because of the length and breadth of experience with compulsory arbitration in Australia, the experience of that country is of particular interest, and may indicate problems that would be faced by other countries extending the scope of legal regulation of labor-management relations.
At the beginning of the Sung dynasty, from 1020 to 1120 AD, a new complex of philosophical viewpoints emerged that would urge Chinese philosophy to pass from its ancient to its modern period. This was the period noted for the rise of Neo-Confucianism. The Neo-Confucianists were no doubt the offspring of Confucius, but in their early years they were believers in Taoism and Buddhism, and only afterward went back to Confucius. They assumed the tasks of criticism, reviewed the evidences of antiquity, and recorded their conclusions. Thus Neo-Confucianism was a kind of summing up or revision of the ethics, morals, and beliefs of the past, and as such was in keeping with the spirit of the times.
Review of book by Franklin D. Scott. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1950. 359 pp.
Review of book by David Greene. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1950. 231 pp.
Review of book by Walter A. Kaufmann. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1950. 409 pp.