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NONTHEMATIC / Vol. 9, No. 4 (Winter 1942)

The following observations center about the meaning and empirical relevance of the laws of the market as a main problem. I propose to discuss it on the level of economic theory, that is, to focus attention on the 'order of the world' to which these so-called laws refer, rather than one the scientific procedure by which they are formulated. Not the methods of economic inquiry but the process of bargaining and exchange itself, especially as reflected in the minds and actions of the participants, will be the main field of our investigation.

Although we have many computations on the cost of wars and on how the money is obtained, we have little information how far wars are really paid for by current production and how far by drawing upon existing capital. The direct statistical approach to this problem necessitates a national capital account before and after the war -- a reckoning that is especially difficult for countries that are severely affected. Valuation of capital assets is always difficult, but it is nearly impossible if the price and industrial structure of a country is heavily distorted by the war effort. A measurement becomes possible only years after the war, when civilian production is again dominant.

Even while Nazi propaganda was spreading the slogan "woman’s place is in the home," National Socialist preparedness experts were exploring the records of the first world conflict to learn how woman labor could be increased and women trained for Hitler’s total war. The propaganda served, in fact, as a smoke screen for the planned mobilization of women for preparedness. For the achievement of victory in the coming war the following lessons, according to Nazi experts, could be learned from the experience of the previous war.

In the general set-up of the National Socialist policy of tight control and totalitarian propaganda the pattern chosen for the vocational unit containing the 70,000 German seamen shows the most important deviations from the normal type of organization and political training of the working population. These deviations are to be explained by two underlying intentions: to build up a control over the seamen more rigid than that established over any other section of the workers; and to prepare the seamen for a powerful fifth-column activity, in contact with the Germans living abroad. Much attention has been devoted to the Nazi-dominated organizations and the subversive activities of Germans residing in foreign countries. But the mobile units of the German fifth column, although one of its most dangerous instruments, have escaped any thorough investigation.

Under the present plan for postwar economic restructuring all international transactions would be made in a new monetary unit and would be effected by crediting and debiting the participating countries in the books of the world clearing bank. The clearing office of each participating country or region would assume responsibility for the balances and would settle with its nationals in its own national currency. The international balances would be payable to and receivable from the bank itself, thus eliminating all direct creditor-debtor relationships between the participants. Consequently any country could import from or export to any other participating country, without limit, as long as the balance of inflow and outflow of goods and services in relationship to all the other participants were maintained.

A great many books have been written about the collapse of France but very few about the France that didn’t collapse, that remained true and faithful to herself and to the cause of freedom. Of those few this the brilliant work of Phillipe Barres is certainly the best.

Review of book by Philipp Frank. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1941. 226 pp

Review of book by Carlton J. H. Hayes. "Rise of Modern Europe" series, ed. By William L. Langer.] New York: Harper. 1941. 340 pp., bibliographical essay and index 50 pp.

Review of book by Walter H.C. Laves. Harris Foundation Lectures, 1941.] Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1941. 219 pp.

Review of book by Walter H.C. Laves. Harris Foundation Lectures by Ferdinand Shevill, Jacob Viner, Charles C. Colby, Quincy Wright, J. Fred Rippy, and Walter H.C. Laves. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1941. 185 pp.

Review of book by Joseph Mayer. Durham: Duke University Press. 1941. 564 pp., index 8 pp.

Review of book by Lewis Corey. New York: Viking. 1942 308 pp.

Review of book by H. D. Dickinson. New York: Oxford University Press. 1940. 262 pp.

Review of book by Nels Anderson. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1940. 357 pp.

Review of book by Georges Gurvitch. Preface by Roscoe Pound.New York: Philosophical Library and Alliance Book Corporation. 1942. xx and 309 pp.

Review of book by Karl N. Llewellyn and E. Adamson Hoebel. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. 1941. 360 pp., index 13 pp.

Review of book by Elmer Ellsworth Powell. Boston: Chapman and Grimes. 1941. vi and 344 pp.

Review of book by Florian Znanicki. New York: Columbia University Press. 1940. 212 pp.

Review of book by Gregor Ziemer. New York: Oxford University Press. 1941. 200 pp.

Review of book by John W. M. Whiting. New Haven: Yale University Press. 1941. 221 pp.

Review of book by Andrew Efron. New Haven: Tuttle, Morehouse and Taylor. 1941. 372 , xiv pp.

Review of book by Alwin Thaler. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. 1941. 297 pp., index 14 pp.

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