• Social Research An Int'l Quarterly

THE GLOBAL RISE OF XENOPHOBIA / Vol. 88 No. 4 (Winter 2021)

Updated: Nov 20

Arien Mack, Journal Editor


Ebby Abramson

Dolunay Bulut

Endangered Scholars Worldwide


Sina Arnold

Migration, Holocaust Memory and anti-Muslim racism: Contours of Antisemitism in Contemporary Germany

Antisemitism is a continuous and present problem in Germany, as opinion polls, crime statistics, and the experience of Jews show. While the violent attack on a Halle synagogue in 2019 illustrates how anti-Muslim racism and antisemitism are intertwined, in contemporary discourse the two phenomena are often pitted against each other. This is also because current German debates about antisemitism are inevitably linked to migration, the Israel-Palestinian conflict, as well as struggles over the role of Holocaust remembrance. Attempts at joint campaigning are often overshadowed by competition for victimhood and debates around an “imported antisemitism.”


Shlomo Avineri


Jocelyne Cesari

The Muslim Stranger: The Combined Effect of Xenophobia and Islamophobia


Amit Chaudhuri

The Organic Intellectual, Mystical Poetry, and the Rationalist Discourse in India Today


Irena Grudzinska-Gross

The Return of the Repressed


Nehginpao Kipgen


Mehmet Kurt

Decolonizing Kurdistan: Internal Colonial Domination and Kurdophobia

This paper deals with the question of how the four nation states of Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria, where the Kurds live, unite against the Kurdish emancipation of any sort across the Kurdish land and subjectivities. What is it that unites this hostile and competing regimes in the face of fragmentation and division of the Kurds? While the four ethno-nation states of Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria insist to present the Kurdistan question as a domestic affair, a security question, or as a case of underdevelopment, I suggest that their policies towards Kurdish emancipation in any form and anywhere are informed by internal and/or settler colonial practices of de-development. In the first section, I start engaging with two simple questions -- where is Kurdistan and is Kurdistan a colony? – and suggest that Kurdistan is indeed a ‘hidden colony’, where we can observe hybrid practices of internal and settler colonies across four parts of Kurdistan. In the second section, I investigate how this colonial subordination is maintained through three intertwined practices of securitization, deinstitutionalization and de-historization, dehumanization and internal colonial domination. I argue that despite different histories of struggle and oppression across Kurdistan, these widely-observed practices have become integral foundations of colonial subordination of the Kurds at the hand of the respective ethno-nation states.


Erika Lee

"Americans Must Rule America": Xenophobia in the United States

This essay examines American xenophobia to identify some of its defining features: xenophobia in the United States has been built upon the U.S.’s history of white settler colonialism and slavery; it has become part of the systemic racism and other forms of bigotry and discrimination that have defined American society; it has adapted to and shaped successive migrations and settlement of peoples from around the world; it has defined American nationalism and nativism; it has helped some of the country’s most important institutions to function and thrive: American capitalism, democracy, and its global leadership.


Bálint Madlovics, Bálint Magyar

The global rise of xenophobia can hardly be detached from the global rise of populism. In this paper, we define populism as the ideological instrument for the political program of morally unconstrained collective egoism. First, we show how this represents a challenge to liberal democracy, attempting to replace its legal-rational legitimacy basis with substantive-rational legitimacy. Second, the concept of collective egoism is explained in the context of the social psychology of populism. Third, we use the examples of two populist leaders—Viktor Orbán from Hungary and Donald Trump from the US—to illustrate the elements of the definition of populism. The paper concludes with a few thoughts about the problems and inefficiency of fighting populism from a dogmatic liberal point of view.


Zubayra Shamseden, Munawwar Abdulla

The global rise in xenophobia has aided in emboldening the People’s Republic of China (PRC) to enact genocidal policies against Uyghurs to secure and stabilize the Uyghur region for economic goals. While the ways in which racism and xenophobia transpire and present in China is different from what is familiar in the West, it nevertheless is effective in maintaining a status quo where minorities are othered and oppressed. Some issues that provide insight into the way in which xenophobia and structural racism can be seen in Uyghur and Chinese society is within education policies, economic disparities, and incarceration rates. China’s legalization and promotion of racism, its encouragement of Han dominance and its implementation of oppressive, xenophobic policies in the Uyghur region are a trigger point of the current Uyghur genocide.


Marci Shore

The relationship, if there is one, between the rise of authoritarianism and the rise of xenophobia.


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