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NONTHEMATIC / Vol. 21, No. 3 (Fall 1954)

Arthur Schweitzer
A Critique of Countervailing Power

Countervailing power in its most general form has three characteristics. It is located on the other side of the market; it is based on a conflict of interest between the opponents in the market; and it leads not only to a transfer of profits between the two marketers but also to a passing on of monopoly profits to traders in subsequent markets. Countervailing power is thus believed to be a principle of great generality that not only determines prices but also tends to equalize distributional shares in markets.

Charles A. Micaud
French Intellectuals and Communism

A new type of intellectual has been created by the party to lead the others; he is efficient, unscrupulous, and basically uninterested in the search for trust and beauty. Speaking of a young leader of the party, a former Communist described him thus: "he has scorn for intellectual speculation. He represents discipline, efficiency, concreteness. He has a varnish but not enough culture to be impregnated with humanism. He represents the new type of Communist intellectual, the barbarian who possesses techniques and no ethics."

David J. Saposs
Current Trade-Union Movements of Western Europe

A better illustration of the health of the trade-union movements of western Europe is the fact that in all the countries, except France and Italy, the movements are strong and effective in every important industry and service. This was not true before the war, or before the Nazi and Fascist regimes.

Howard B. White
The Problem of Loyalty in American Political Thought

The thesis of this paper is the old and simple one that we shall not find our way to a society that prefers Platonic conversion to conversion in its more dangerous forms until we regain the understanding that man is a political animal, that statesmanship is action in circumstance, and that politics is a "balance between good and evil."

Yale Brozen
Determinants of Entrepreneurial Ability

In improving the technology, entrepreneurs play a vital role. [In this paper] the term entrepreneur is used to designate those persons who, in an ultimate sense, control the decisions made in productive enterprises and also carry some responsibility for the decisions made. Four types of entrepreneurs will be distinguished, in accordance with Danhof's suggestive terminology. First, "innovating entrepreneurs," second, "imitating entrepreneurs," third, "Fabian entrepreneurs," and finally, "drone entrepreneurs."

Joseph Cropsey
Relation of the State to Industrial Action and Economics and Jurisprudence

Review of book by Henry Carter. Edited, with introductory essay and notes, by Joseph Dorfman. New York: Columbia University Press. 1954. 182 pp.

Fritz Morstein
American State Legislatures

Review of book edited by Belle Zeller. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell. 1954.294 pp.

Helmut R. Wagner
Toward Understanding Germany

Review of book by Robert H. Lowie. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1954. 396 pp.

Alexander Melamid
Germany: A General and Regional Geography

Review of book by Robert E. Dickinson. New York: Dutton. 1953. 700 pp.

Frieda Wunderlich
Freedom and Welfare: Social Patterns in the Northern Countries of Europe

Review of book by George R. Nelson. Copenhagen: Ejnar Munksgaard. 1953. 539 pp.

Helmut R. Wagner
Essays on Sociology and Social Psychology

Review of book by Karl Mannheim. Edited by Paul Kecskemeti.New York: Oxford University Press. 1953. 319 pp.

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